Deposition of high melting point (refractory) metals like Niobium, Tungsten, Rhenium, Tantalum or Molybdenum can be a complicate task to be accomplished with e-beam evaporators. The little melting temperature difference between the crucible and the contained evaporation material can lead to various kind of problems and defects like:
Sputtering may solve some of the above issues but is not suitable when directional (line of sight) evaporation is required.
Ionized Jet Deposition (IJD) overcomes all these limitations and is the ideal solution for directional deposition of refractory metals (and any metal in general). In fact due to its ultra-fast high power pulsed ablation process IJD allows the congruent evaporation of a few micron deep region of the target surface avoiding all the above issues. With IJD stable and reproducible deposition processes can be achieved with no contamination, low heat generation, no need for water cooling, high deposition rate and efficient material use.
IJD can be mounted in any orientation. Using a reactive working gas (typically oxygen and nitrogen) under proper partial pressure, coatings of different chemical composition than that of the target material can be deposited.